Need response to below 150 words APA format with 1 scholary refrence with citation
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The Common Screening Test during Pregnancy
The confirmation of pregnancy prior to visiting can be performed through the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) urine test. The HCG urine test is conducted to confirm pregnancy roughly 1 to 2 weeks following, missing period. The existence of HCG in the urine is normally considered the positive sign of pregnancy. Additionally, the ultrasound is frequently utilized early in pregnancy to confirm pregnancy as well as the date of pregnancy when the mother is not sure of the initial date of her most recent menstrual period. The test can be conducted after six weeks of pregnancy (Evans et al., 2016).
Initial blood work is conducted during the first visit, normally at eight weeks. The obstetric panel comprises of CBC, blood type, RH antibody screen, Syphilis, Rubella, Hepatitis B and Urine culture without sensitivity. In addition, the HIV test is recommended together with the Pap smear as well as STD testing for Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomoniasis. These tests are carried out as the beginning baseline. The CBC has the ability to check for the infection and anemia (Gross et al., 2015). Blood type is conducted since the mother may need blood when there are complications during pregnancy. The Rh factor is determined since when the mother is negative, the baby may not be negative which poses a risk to the baby (Gross et al., 2015).
The urine culture is conducted to check for urinary tract infections since when left not treated it augments the risk for the baby as well as the mother concerning the complications that include pyelonephritis. The rubella check is conducted to guarantee that the patient is rubella immune since it may cause the fetus birth defects when infected. If she is not immune, then vaccination is necessary (Evans et al., 2016). Sexually transmitted illnesses are checked since they pose numerous risks in pregnancy including miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. The glucose is checked in the urine to detect the presence of diabetes mellitus and protein as the baseline in order to monitor for the preeclampsia later in the pregnancy (Gross et al., 2015).
Genetic testing is conducted through the ultrasound or ultra-screen eleven to fourteen weeks of pregnancy. The second part of the genetic testing is carried out at sixteen to eighteen weeks and involves the Alfa Fetoprotein test (AFP). In addition, the quad screen, as well as the cystic fibrosis screening, is normally conducted to see if the mother is a carrier for the cystic fibrosis (Evans et al., 2016).
MaternitT21 testing can be conducted at sixteen to eighteen weeks so as to detect the augmented quantity of chromosome 21 material that is linked to the Down syndrome. The ultrasound test may be conducted when there is the detection of fetal abnormalities (Gross et al., 2015). The anatomy scan is conducted at twenty weeks of pregnancy. This involves the ultrasound to look at the organs of the baby to guarantee that everything appears normal. The level of amniotic fluid and the cervical length is also checked (Bianchi, 2015).
The glucose testing, TDAP, antibody screen or Rhogam is conducted at twenty-eight weeks. For example, the TDAP vaccination is necessary throughout the third trimester of the pregnancy to avert pertussis in the infants by the transfer of the protective antibodies (Bianchi, 2015). Additional ultrasounds may be required for instances that include the growth or the non-stress test for reduced fetal movements (Gross et al., 2015). Lastly, the Group Beta Strep is conducted at thirty-six weeks and when positive antibiotics can be prescribed during the labor to reduce the risk of infection to the newborn since it may lead to pneumonia in the baby when aspirated throughout delivery and possible death may take place (Gross et al., 2015).
Bianchi, D. W. (2015). Pregnancy: prepare for unexpected prenatal test results. Nature News, 522(7554), 29.
Evans, M. I., Wapner, R. J., & Berkowitz, R. L. (2016). Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 215(3), 298-305.
Gross, S. J., Kareht, S., & Ryan, A. (2015). Prenatal screening: focus on more specific fetal testing. Nature, 523(7560), 290.
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