The isocaloric weight of fat

1) ______ The amount of heat produced for each liter of oxygen used in metabolism of fat is (a.&nbsp;&nbsp;much greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. much less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. approximately equal to) the amount of heat produced for each liter of oxygen used in the metabolism of protein.

2) ______ The energy derived from the oxidation of 1 gram of carbohydrate is (a. greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. equal to) the energy derived from the oxidation of 1 gram of fat.

3) ______ The isocaloric weight of fat is (a. greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. equal to) that of glycogen.

4) ______ The myoglobin concentration in the muscle of aquatic mammals is generally (a. greater than;&nbsp; b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. equal to) that of the terrestrial mammals.

5) ______ Marine mammals such as sea lions probably meet most of their water requirements by (a. drinking sea water; b. from their food; c. from metabolism of fat & carbohydrate).

6) ______ The activity of the contractile vacuoles in a sponge placed in mildly brackish water is likely to (a. increase; b. stay the same; c. decrease) when compared to the same sponge in fresh water.

7) ______ The amount of oxygen dissolved in the body water of deep-diving marine mammals would be expected to be (a. greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. approximately equal to) that of terrestrial mammals.

8) ______ Suppose that a killer whale that was at rest in cold water begins swimming rapidly in pursuit of yummy seal snacks.&nbsp;&nbsp;You predict that the blood flow though the countercurrent heat exchanger in the blood supply to the flukes would (a. increase;&nbsp;&nbsp;b.&nbsp;&nbsp;decrease; c. remain unchanged).

9) ______ You compare the water loss rates of the similar size animals from the Sonoran desert – which of them will require the least amount of water per 100g of body mass? (a. gila monster [a reptile]; b. roadrunner [a bird]; c. kangaroo rat [a mammal])

10) ______ The actual oxygen debt accrued during the dive of a diving marine mammal is (a. greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. equal to) the predicted oxygen debt (based on normal metabolic rate).

11) ______ The endurance time for a large mammal is (a. greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. equal to) that of a small mammal.

12) ______ The absorptivity of an object is (a. greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. equal to) its emissivity at a given wavelength.

13) ______ The temperature of the skin surface (i.e., at the base of the fur) of a raccoon in cold air is (a. warmer than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. cooler than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. approximately the same as) the ambient air temperature.

14) ______ The temperature of the skin surface of a whale that is attempting to conserve heat in cold water is (a. warmer than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. cooler than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. approximately the same as) the ambient water temperature.

15) ______ Suppose that the ambient temperature is higher than the body temperature, and the body temperature of a mammal is constant.&nbsp;&nbsp;All heat loss must occur by (a. conduction; b. radiation;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. evaporation).

16) ______ You measure the urine production of a fish in its natural habitat and find that it produced almost 10% of its body weight in urine over the course of a day.&nbsp;&nbsp;This fish is probably a (a. marine teleost; b. coelacanth; c. freshwater teleost).

17) ______ The osmotic work required to maintain ion concentrations in freshwater invertebrates amounts to (a. less than 5%; b. between 5 and 10%; c. more than 10%) of basal metabolic rate for these animals.

18) ______ Marine iguanas eliminate excess ions via (a. their urine; b. specialized salt glands; c. their gills).

19) ______ The skin of a marine teleost (a. has hormonally controlled permeability; b. is impermeable; c. is permeable) to Cl-ions.

20) ______ Suppose we were to compare the cost of locomotion (kcal kg-1 km-1) for a tuna, an eagle, and a raccoon (all the same body mass).&nbsp;&nbsp;The cost of locomotion would be highest in the (a. tuna;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. eagle;&nbsp; c. raccoon).

21) ______ The thin waxy layer on the cuticle of most terrestrial insects affects the evaporation rate equation by changing the value of (a. K; b. J; c. WVPs)?

22) ______ Which of these groups of animals has solved the biggest water balance problem facing terrestrial animals (a. earthworms; b. slugs; c. snails)?

23) ______ Animals meeting their caloric and water needs metabolically should (a. metabolize only fat; b. metabolize only carbohydrate; c. metabolize fat or carbohydrate).

24) ______ The cost of running (kcal kg-1 km-1) for a deer would be (a. greater than;&nbsp;&nbsp;b. less than;&nbsp;&nbsp;c. equal to) that for a small dog.

25) ______ You collect a marine invertebrate from the brackish water of a tide pool and inject inulin into its body.&nbsp;&nbsp;You later collect urine from the animal and find that inulin is present in the urine. You conclude that the animal must use (a. active transport; b. ion excretion; c. ultrafiltration) as part of its excretory process.

26) ______ When osmoconforming following a transition from sea water to brackish water, the concentration of serine in the body fluids of a marine invertebrate is likely to (a. decrease; b. increase;&nbsp; c. stay the same).

Fill in the blank:

27) If the Q10 of a physiological process is 4, then an increase in temperature from 15°C to 45°C will cause the rate of the process to increase by a factor of ______________________________.

28) Some desert mammals use _______________________________ heat exchangers to cool the air leaving their lungs.

29 & 30) After acclimation to a higher temperature, a fish species shows an oxygen consumption that is equal to that observed at the lower temperature.&nbsp;&nbsp;This is called _________________________________. A related species, however, shows an oxygen consumption after acclimation at the higher temperature that is greater than that at the lower temperature but less than that predicted by the Q10.&nbsp;&nbsp;This is called _______________________________________.

31) The body fluids of a typical marine invertebrate living in its natural environment will have an osmolarity of approximately ___________________________ mOsm.

32) & 33) Animals living in the absence of oxygen obtain energy through the process of glycolysis, which involves the breakdown of _______________________________________ into ________________________________.

34) If the reflectivity of the fur of an animal is 36% of incident radiation at a particular wavelength, its absorptivity is ______% of the incident radiation at that wavelength.

35) Many freeze-susceptible insects have a compound in their blood called _________________________________ that lowers the freezing point and the supercooling point.

36) Deep diving marine mammals often have smaller relative lung volumes compared with terrestrial mammals.&nbsp;&nbsp;In aIDition, they are observed to exhale immediately before the dive.&nbsp;&nbsp;Why might this be so? _____________________________________________________________

37) The _______________________________________is the temperature range within which metabolic heat production is unaffected by temperature change.

38) Unlike most other vertebrates, elasmobranchs can tolerate high levels of ________________ in their body fluids, helping them achieve their slightly hyperosmotic state.

39) You measure the Na+ ion concentration in the body fluids of a shore crab and find that it is slightly less than that of sea water.&nbsp;&nbsp;This could be due to active regulation of Na+ or due to a ______________ equilibrium between Na+ and charged proteins in the crab.

40) Marine teleosts use __________________ cells in their gills to help maintain their hypoionic state.

41) Insects remove water from their urine in the rectum by establishing a local ___________________ gradient.

42) & 43) The osmolarity of body fluids is usually measured via _________________________ reduction and/or&nbsp;&nbsp;___________________________ depression, changes to the physical properties of a solution brought about by the concentration of dissolved solutes.

Figure based questions:

44) Circle the protonephridia which is most appropriate for a fresh water animal.

45) Indicate the region on the right-most protonephridia which is permeable to water.

46) Label the lines for birds, mammals and reptiles on this graph of water use per day for animals of different body sizes.&nbsp;&nbsp;The lines do include the entire size range for each group.

A plot of metabolic rate (normalized) versus ambient temperature for two mammalian species is shown above.&nbsp;&nbsp;One species is tropical and the other lives in the Antarctic

47) Species __________ is tropical.

48) The temperature indicated by “A” is equal to the __________________ for species 1.

49) The slope of the plots is a measure of the _______________________________.

50) The temperature indicated by “B” is equal to the&nbsp;&nbsp;___________________________.

“Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!”

The post The isocaloric weight of fat appeared first on nursing assignment tutor.