POST 1CorineBiomedical Sciences in NursingAccording to Moran (2020), “theories outside of nursing are also worthy of consideration as a phenomenon is evaluated. Interdisciplinary aspects of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) work encourages the review of theories specific to the phenomenon” (p. 107). For this assignment, a review of biomedical science models and their application to nursing has been one of the focus. Theories from biomedical sciences include knowledge from biology, medicine, physiological and genomics/genetics, to name a few.Describe one biomedical theory or model frequently used in health care and provide your rationale for how it relates to improved patient outcomes.For this writing, genomic principles and theories as it applies to breast cancer are succinctly discussed. Based on the World Health Organization (2002), Genomics differs from genetics in that genomics address all genes and their combined influences on the development of cancer or organism. Whereas, with genetics, the focus is on a specific gene ( Malon, 2009, p. 373). Many diagnostic testing and therapeutic modalities have evolved related to the detection and treatment of breast cancer. Malon (2009) wrote that “genomics has added a new dimension to cancer risk assessment and nurses need to be prepared to integrate this new knowledge into practice” (p. 373). Borrowing from the field of biology, genetic, and technology, the medical community is consistently discovering new knowledge about cancer that is transforming the understanding of cancer diagnosis and treatment for many types of cancer. Identification of cancer makers and specificity of treatment based on the genetic makeup and interrelation of the cancer cells have played a role in targeted treatment and longevity of cancer survivors. The caveat is that proper counseling by appropriate health care providers, educated in the field of genetics, should be in place at every testing and treatment cancer centers that provide genomic testing (Malon, 2009, p.374)Describe one biomedical theory or model that is utilized in your specific practice area. Please provide at least two examples related to its applicationI do not think that most nurses stop to think how much the nursing profession has borrowed theoretical concepts that originated from other disciplines, for example, germ theory and principles of infection posited by Louis Pasteur in 1858 (McEwen & Wills, 2019, p.). Many nurses in the medical units have cared for patients with respiratory airborne conditions who are placed in negative pressure rooms to stop the spread of the respiratory disease. Another example of germ theory and principles of infection is the act of proper hand hygiene. Germ theory and principles of infection involve describing, understanding, and managing infectious disease (McEwen & Willis, 2019, p. 333) Nowadays, as society deals with the Covid-19 crisis, many of the testing and vaccines have evolved from the understanding of the cause, transmission, and treatment which falls under the auspice of the epidemiologic triangle. The epidemiologic triangle consists of three components which are the host, the agent, and the environment with regards to disease causation (McEwen & Wills, 2019, p. 334)ReferenceMahon, S.M., (2009). Cancer genomics: advocating for competent care for families. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, (13(4), p. 373-372. Retrieved fromMcEwin, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing. (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.Moran, K. J., Burson, R., & Conrad, D. (2020). The doctor of nursing practice project, (3rd ed.)[[VitalSource Bookshelf version]]. Retrieved from vbk://9781284184549POST 2PriscilaGerm TheoryMcEwen and Wills (2019), discusses the impact of the germ theory in modern medicine today. Louis Pasteur theorized that a specific germ is essentially responsible for producing an infectious process (McEwen & Wills, 2019). Subsequently, for an infection to occur, a host (germ) must be susceptible to the invasive organism (McEwen & Wills, 2019). Prevention strategies, such as adequate hand hygiene can help aid to putting a stop to the vicious cycle.Furthermore, understanding the cycle of infection, essentially from the germ theory, helps one establish methods to help reduce the potential negative or less favored outcomes associated with infection. Aside from hand hygiene, aseptic technique when appropriate, and using adequate agents to clean surfaces of high traffic or high risk may also be imperative to promote better patient outcomes. Standard precautions with patient care have also been noted to reduce undesirable patient outcomes.Germ theory in the critical care settingAreas such as the critical care setting are high-risk reservoir areas for infections; thus, exceptionally important to sanitize these areas appropriately. Examples of common-touch surfaces in the critical care setting may include but not limited to doorknobs, faucet handles, remote control devices, shared desks, telephones, light-switches, IV pumps, etc. All of which are high-risk of dissemination of infectious agents (Scott & et al., 2020). Implementing microbicides as routine practice in surfaces of high risk, will lead to better outcomes, by preventing nosocomial infections.Another great example of the germ theory would be the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. As we are all very much familiar that the SARS-CoV-2 organism is a highly contagious organism and has spread rapidly globally. It is vital to interrupt the cycle by implementing hand hygiene strategies with soap and water, using hand sanitizer, social distancing and wearing masks to help stop the spread. Of course, we now have the vaccinations that have been rolled out, which hopefully can help slow things down to allow for better patient outcomes.ReferencesMcEwen, M., & Wills, E.M. (2019). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. (5th ed). Philadelphia, PA:Wolters Kluwer HealthScott, E.A., Bruning, E., Nims, R.W., Rubino, J.R., & Ijaz, M.K. (2020). A 21st century view ofinfection control in everyday settings: Moving from the Germ Theory of Disease to the Microbial Theory of Health. American Journal of Infection Control, 48(11), 1387-1392. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.ajc.2020.05.012EXAMPLE REPLY does not need 3 references with 2 is ok.Success through use of gene discoveries has brought forth information on genetic disorder causes such as cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, and Huntington disease (McEwin & Willis, 2019). The Human Genome Project astonishingly mapped three billion base pairs of the human genome (Pestka et al., 2010). Genomics can pertain to all nurses in practice. By using genomics as a main focus for assessments, nurses’ plans of care for patients’ specific needs can be met. Specific assessments used include obtaining family history, updating a family pedigree, environmental factors that impact gene expression, signs and symptoms related to genomic conditions, and inquiring of what is known or desired to be known of genomic components in a condition (Pestka et al., 2010, pp.42-43). A nurse can utilize and incorporate genomic information for preconception and prenatal testing, newborn screening, disease susceptibility, and more (McEwin & Willis, 2019). Assisting in foreseeing a predisposed tendency towards a disease allows health care workers and patients to anticipate instances. Policies can be created to address areas in practice by recognizing preventative measures (Calzone et al., 2010). For example, in relation to pain as you discussed, a policy can be formulated using genomic approaches.ReferencesCalzone, K., Cashion, A., Feetham, S., Jenkins, J., Prows, C., Williams, J., & Wung, S. (2010). Nursestransforming health care using genetics and genomics. Nursing Outlook, 58(1), 26-35. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2009.05.001McEwin, M. & Willis, E. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing. (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters KluwerHealth.Pestka, E., Burbank, K., & Junglen, L. (2010). Improving nursing practice with genomics. NursingManagement, 41(3), 40-44. doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000369499.99852.c3
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